An Allergy is a disorder of the immune system
. Allergic reactions occur due to normally harmless environmental
substances known as allergens; these reactions are acquired, predictable
and rapid. Allergy is one of four forms of hypersensitivity.
allergies like allergic rhinitis are highly prevalent in the human
population and cause, allergic conjunctivitis, itchiness and runny
nose. Allergies can play a major role in conditions such as asthma.
Seasonal allergies are common and impact people during the spring,
summer and fall. As we enter spring, the culprits causing symptoms
in most people will be trees (like oak and elm), grasses and weeds
and will vary from region to region.
factors for allergy can be placed in two general categories.
Namely host and environmental factors.
Host factors include heredity, sex, race and age, with heredity
being by far the most significant.
However, there have been recent increases in the incidence of
allergic disorders that cannot be explained by genetic factors
major environmental candidates are alterations in exposure to
infectious diseases during early childhood, environmental pollution,
allergen levels and dietary changes.
An allergen is something that triggers an allergy. When a person
with allergic rhinitis breathes in an allergen such as pollen
or dust, the body releases chemicals, including histamine. This
causes allergy symptoms such as itching, swelling etc.
Allergic rhinitis is a type of immune reaction. Normally, the
immune system responds to foreign microorganisms, or particles
like pollen or dust, by producing specific proteins, called
Sign and Symptoms
Shortness of Breath
Irritation of Nose
Decreased Sense of Smell
Itching of Eye
Sense of Taste
High-Pitched Breath Sounds
Traditionally treatment and management of allergies involved
simply avoiding the allergen in question or otherwise reducing
exposure. For instance, people with cat allergies were encouraged
to avoid them. While avoidance may help to reduce symptoms and
avoid life-threatening anaphylaxis, it is difficult to achieve
for those with pollen or similar air-borne allergies.
avoidance still has a role in management though and is often
used in managing food allergies.
Several antagonistic drugs are used to block the action of allergic
mediators, or to prevent activation of cells.