Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) affect the heart and
surrounding blood vessels and can take many forms, such as high
blood pressure, coronary artery disease and stroke.
artery disease (CAD) happens when the arteries that supply blood
to heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. This is due to the
buildup of cholesterol and other material, called plaque, on their
inner walls. As it grows, less blood can flow through the arteries.
As a result, the heart muscle can't get the blood or oxygen it needs.
Coronary artery disease is usually caused by atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol and other fatty substances accumulate on the inner
wall of the arteries. They attract fibrous tissue, blood components,
calcium and harden into artery clogging plaques. Congenital
defects and muscle spasms can also block blood flow.
Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood
pressure is elevated. It is also referred to as high blood pressure.
Hypertension can be classified as either essential (primary)
or secondary. Essential or primary hypertension means that no
medical cause can be found to explain the raised blood pressure.
It is very common because about 90-95% of hypertension is essential
hypertension. Secondary hypertension indicates that the hight
blood pressure is a result of (i.e., secondary to) another condition,
such as kidney disease or tumours (adrenal adenoma).
of stroke are atherosclerosis, hypertension, thrombosis, embolism,
cerebral hemorrhage etc.
most common symptoms of heart disease are:
Shortness of Breath
Chest Pain or Discomfort
Increase Heart Beat
the cardiovascular examination centers on the heart, peripheral
signs are often invaluable.
of Signs of Heart Disease includes:
Peripheral Pulses & Venous palpations.
Heart Sounds & Murmurs
is the list of diagnostic tests for a cardiac patient: