Patients Care

CARDIOVASCULAR

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) affect the heart and surrounding blood vessels and can take many forms, such as high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and stroke.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. This is due to the buildup of cholesterol and other material, called plaque, on their inner walls. As it grows, less blood can flow through the arteries. As a result, the heart muscle can't get the blood or oxygen it needs.

Causes

  • Coronary artery disease is usually caused by atherosclerosis. Cholesterol and other fatty substances accumulate on the inner wall of the arteries. They attract fibrous tissue, blood components, calcium and harden into artery clogging plaques. Congenital defects and muscle spasms can also block blood flow.
  • Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure is elevated. It is also referred to as high blood pressure. Hypertension can be classified as either essential (primary) or secondary. Essential or primary hypertension means that no medical cause can be found to explain the raised blood pressure. It is very common because about 90-95% of hypertension is essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension indicates that the hight blood pressure is a result of (i.e., secondary to) another condition, such as kidney disease or tumours (adrenal adenoma).
  • Causes of stroke are atherosclerosis, hypertension, thrombosis, embolism, cerebral hemorrhage etc.

Symptoms:

The most common symptoms of heart disease are:

  • Shortness of Breath
  • Chest Pain or Discomfort
  • Increase Heart Beat
  • Dizziness

Signs:

Although the cardiovascular examination centers on the heart, peripheral signs are often invaluable.

Examination of Signs of Heart Disease includes:

  • Vital signs measurement
  • Peripheral Pulses & Venous palpations.
  • Pulmonary Examination
  • Heart Sounds & Murmurs
  • Edema

Management

Diagnosis:

Following is the list of diagnostic tests for a cardiac patient:

  • ECG ( Electrocardiogram)
  • Chest X-Ray
  • Echocardiography
  • ETT (Exercise Tolerance Test)
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
  • Cardiac Catheterization & Angiography

Management:

  • Life style modifications
  • Medicines
  • Percutaneous Coronary Interventions
  • Bypass (CABG)