Dyslipidemia is a disorder of lipoprotein
metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency.
Dyslipidemias may be manifested by elevation of the total cholesterol,
the "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and
the triglyceride concentrations and a decrease in the "good"
high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration in the
Dyslipidemia comes under consideration in many situations including
diabetes, a common cause of lipidemia. For adults with diabetes,
it has been recommended that the levels of LDL, HDL and total
cholesterol and triglyceride be measured every year.
Dyslipidemia is a disruption in the amount of lipids in the
blood. In western societies, most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias;
that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood, often due to diet
The prolonged elevation of insulin levels can lead to dyslipidemia.
Secondary causes contribute to most cases of dyslipidemia in
adults. The most important secondary cause in developed countries
is lifestyle with excessive dietary intake of saturated fat
Other common secondary causes include diabetes mellitus, alcohol
overuse, chronic kidney disease, hypothyroidism, liver diseases
Diabetes is an especially significant secondary cause, patients
with type 2 diabetes are especially at risk. The combination
may be a consequence of obesity, poor control of diabetes, or
both. Diabetic dyslipidemia is often exacerbated by the increased
caloric intake and physical inactivity that characterize the
lifestyles of some patients with type 2 diabetes.
Women with diabetes may be at special risk for cardiac diseases.
Hyperlipidemia is a common and treatable cause of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of death in both men
and women in developed countries. The goal is to diagnose and
retard or reverse atherosclerosis while it is still in a silent
early state before complications occur.
Dyslipidemia itself usually causes no symptoms but can lead
to symptomatic vascular disease, including coronary artery disease
and peripheral arterial disease.
Dyslipidemia is diagnosed by measuring serum lipids. Routine
measurements (lipid profile) include total cholesterol (TC),
Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol.
Patients with premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,
cardiovascular disease with normal or near-normal lipid levels,
or high LDL levels refractory to drug therapy should get C-reactive
protein and homocysteine measurement done.
includes life style changes. For high LDL Cholesterol statins
are used and sometimes bile acid sequestrants with other measures.
For high triglycerides or low HDL Cholesterol Niacin fibrates
etc are used.